SNAPSHOT HISTORY TIMELINE | 1901 to 2000 CE
War of the Golden Stool
Yaa Asantewaa, is a famous Ashanti queen who was a politician, intelligent, and fought for human rights. In 1900, Yaa Asantewaa leads her armies in a famous war known as the War of the Golden Stool against the British. The “Golden Stool” is an Ashanti royal seat/position. In 1921, Yaa Asantewaa was captured and sent on exile to the Seychelles. Yaa Asantewaa died in exile on October 1921.
Meanwhile, W.E.B. DuBois becomes one of the founders of the Niagra Movement (1905); then together with a diverse group of activists, he forms the National Negro Committee, which is renamed National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
WWI & Riots
1911 - Universal Congress of the Races (London, UK)
1914 - The Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) is established by Marcus Garvey.
1915 - Carter G. Woodson establishes the Association for the Study of Negro Life and History
1917 - US passes the Selective Service Act, which gives the government the right to register and draft all men between the age of 21 to 30.
First man to be drafted is a black man named Leo A. Pinckney.
First All-Black Officers arrive at the official black training camp in Fort Des Moines, Iowa.
July 2, 1917 - Massacre of East St. Louis, Illinois
July 8, 1917
Marcus Garvey's Speech
Marcus Garvey speaks to the black community about the East St Louis massacre, by stating that:
“The East St. Louis Riot, or rather massacre, of Monday [July] 2nd, will go down in history as one of the bloodiest outrages against mankind for which any class of people could be held guilty. (Hear! hear.) This is no time for fine words, but a time to lift one’s voice against the savagery of a people who claim to be the dispensers of democracy….”
July 28, 1917
In response to the Massacre of East St. Louis (and possibly in response to Marcus Garvey’s speech), W.E.B DuBois and the NAACP organizes a protest of these events, called the “Silent March.”
Marcus Garvey viewed the Silent March protest as folly, as the riot in East St. Louis was a massacre.
November 11, 1918
World War I ended
Well over 350,000 Black American Soldiers served in the US Army; exact number is difficult to locate. 15,500 Black Caribbean Soldiers were drafted into the British Army. Over 200,000 Black African Soldiers (labelled generically as Senegalese) were drafted and fought for the French Army. Unknown number (information was not recorded) of Black Britons who served in the British Army. Unknown number of Afro German Soldiers who served in the German Army.
Race Riots throughout the US
Race riots of 1919 CE; main riots and protests occurred in Longview (Texas), Knoxville (Tennessee); Omaha (Nebraska), Washington, D.C., Chicago (Illinois)
President Windrow Wilson states:
“The white race is the aggressor…” and that it “was more censurable because our Negro troops are but back from no little share in carrying our cause and our flag to victory.”
Start of the Harlem Renaissance Movement
As a means to escape from the oppression, threats and riots, the black community looked to Art & Literature to liberate themselves from supremacy. This period which started in the heart of Harlem, New York, became a movement across the country known as "the New Negro Movement"
Change of Allegiance
Pan African Congress is held in Paris, New York, Brussels and London periodically through the period of 1921-7.
March 20, 1924 - Virginia passes the Racial Integrity Act (SB 219) & Sterilization Act (SB 281), which classifies Native Americans. In SB 219, the state categorizes "browns" as Native American and "blacks" as Negro. This is a practice that transfers throughout the country.
1925, Malcolm X is born shortly after his father (a UNIA Officer) is murdered by white supremacists.
1928 - Black owned newspapers support the presidential campaign for Al Smith, rather than Herbert Hoover, due to Herbert Hoover’s statement which was:
“The Negro is a source of evil and a danger to both races…”
FDR New Deals
1930 - Richard B. Moore, a Pan Africanist based in Harlem became leading cultural figure. He owned a bookstore and wrote for the journal Freedom Ways. He worked to discard the use of the word Negro, and argued that blacks were Africans in America.
Presidential Election for Franklin D Roosevelt consolidates the black vote to be primarily democratic.
1933 - Rev. John H. Johnson creates the boycott called "Don't Buy Where You Can't Work"
1933-5 FDR creates a series of new deals, some of which incorporated the black populace. These New Deals started to neutralize the active Race Riots that were occurring throughout the country.
January 22-23 1936 - Eleanor Roosevelt speaks before the National Urban League about social and economic change for the black population:
“Much that I am going to say tonight would apply with equal force to any of us living in this country. But our particular concern tonight is with one of the largest race groups in the country--the Negro race…”
Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters
A Philip Randolph creates the organization called the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters.
A Philip Randolph stated that there will be a march of 100,000 blacks unless FDR did something to end racial discrimination in the War Industries. FDR responds to A Philip Randolph's demands by signing the Executive Order #8802, then developed the Fair Employment practice.
December 7, 1941
Doris "Dorie" Miller
USS West Virginia was under attack by Japanese bombers, Doris “Dorie” Miller aimed the .50 caliber anti-aircraft machine guns skyward and fired. Doris’ attack prevented the bombers from finishing their attack, and gave enough time for the crew of USS West Virginia to get off of the ship (before it sunk) and get to safety.
Other events in 1941 include: Hailie Selassie's return to Addis Ababa after the defeat of the Italian Nazis; the birth of Stokely Carmichael (aka Kwame Ture) and the birth of Emmett Till.
Pan Africa Federation
Pan African Federation founded in London. Muhumuza, last leader of the Nyabingi resistence movement dies in Uganda. The Nyabingi resistence was instrumental in redefining and reorganizing the Pan Africanist movement.
The 5th Pan African Congress takes place at Manchester - three new African leaders emerge on the world stage, Jomo Kenyatta, Kwame Nkrumah and Wallace-Johnson of Sierra Leone, whereas W.E.B. DuBois is elected the international president of the Congress. The Tanganyika African Association holds its third territorial conference and resolves to enroll all Africans, women and men, in the African Association, open branches in every town and district, and most importantly resolves "to safeguard the interests of Africans not only in this territory but in the whole of Africa". The TAA later went on to change its name to the Tanganyika African National Union in 1954, elect Julius Nyerere as party president, and win independence for Tanganyika.
Sep 02, 1945
World War II ends.
A total of 1,124,000 to 1,154,720 (sources vary) Black American Soldiers drafted into the military. Unknown number of Black Caribbean Soldiers & Black Britons in the British Army. Unknown number of Black African Soldiers drafted into French Military
President Truman Wipes Out Segregation in Armed Forces
The Resemblement Democratic Africain committee is founded in Bamako, Mail (1946)
Meanwhile, US President Harry Truman creates Interracial Civil Rights Committees to prevent further Race Riots, which has increase dramatically when black soldiers returned from WWII.
Executive Order #9981 (which was created over 3 years after the war ended) is put into effect, which demands equal treatment and equal opportunity in the Armed Forces.
Libya is "granted" Independence by the UN in 1949.
Fight for Equality
The first black student to attend the University of Louisiana was named Roy Wilson (1950)
1954 - Richard Wright publishes "Black Power" about the black populace's efforts to grapple with the effects of colonialism.
Meanwhile in May of the same year, NAACP fights to end segregation in the schools. Hesitant to comply with the demands of NAACP, US President Eisenhower issues orders to Outlaw Segregation in Public Schools. Of course the order wasn't official law until it was practiced.
Throughout the 50's there are protests and movements to desegregate public facilities and to bring an end to Jim Crow.
August 28, 1955
Emmett Louis Till's Death, Mother & Trial
Emmett Louis Till is murdered in Money, Mississippi (US). At aged 14, Emmett was messing around and did a wolf call to a white woman named Carolyn Bryant. Carolyn Bryant, then informed her husband Roy Bryant, who (with his Half Brother, J.W. Milam) snatched Emmett from his Great Uncle’s home and murdered him in cold blood.
His mother, Mamie Till, publicized her son's dismantled body to demonstrate the cruelty and savageness of racist white Americans. This trial inspired countless of people around the world and throughout history.
Early Development of the Big 6
Shortly after the occurrences of the Emmett Till trial and Rosa Parks arrest (1955) for refusal to give up her seat to a white person; the early foundations of the Big Six was being created. In the same year, Martin Luther King, Jr. and E.D. Nixon began to boycott the Montgomery Bus System.
In 1957, when the Gold Coast achieves independence from Britain, hundreds of Pan Africanists attend the ceremonies, including Dr. King, Ralph Bunch and A Philip Randolph.
In 1958, the Big Six come together before President Eisenhower and propose the Civil Rights Legislation -- they received no response.
Malcolm X, born Malcolm Little and later also known as el-Hajj Malik el-Shabazz, was a Black American Muslim minister and black civil rights activist.
His father, Earl Little ,was a member of the UNIA, a minister and a black civil rights activist. Unconsciously, Malcom X continued his father's legacy.
Malcom X was intelligent, charsmitic and devoted to the progression of the black community.
As Stokely Carmichael stated (1998): "Malcom X was an Organizer who had an ability to mobilize people... when Malcom X was done with his speeches, when Malcom left the facility he left behind churches because that is what an Organizer does. An Organizer organizes people, brings them together to build foundations."
January 1959 -June 1960
Creation of Mali Federation includes Senegal. Congo becomes independent with Lumumba as Prime Minister. There are no African officers in the Force Publique, and Belgian officers lose control of the striking troops. Congo becomes chaotic one week after independence. Prime Minister Lumumba appeals to the United Nations for assistance to restore order and to put down the secessionist forces based in the Province of Katanga and led by Tsombe. Independent Africa supports United Nations intervention and those in a position to do so contribute troops and policemen. Many volunteers from other African states go into the Congo to join the rebellion against the UN and NATO troops in the Congo. The threat of crises spreading to other African states causes African leaders to call for unification and political stability.
Freedom Riders (US)
Thirteen Freedom Riders (seven black and six white passengers) are led by the CORE Director, James Farmer, to take passage on buses traveling through the southern states. The first freedom ride bus was set on fire; the second one was attacked by a white mob. However, the protest continued. This protest lasted over 7 months, and developed a following of volunteer participants. Many famous freedom riders include Genevieve Hughes, William E. Harbour, Ed Blankenheim and Stokely Carmichael. Nearly 400 freedom riders were arrested and 3 riders were murdered. The original freedom rides lasted until December 10th 1961.
Black Panther Party is Founded
Huey Newton and Bobby Seale create an organization of Self-Defense for the Black Community against the brutality of the US system. The Panthers practiced militant self-defense of minority communities. Additionally, the Panthers developed socialist programs to support the Black Community against social neglect. Programs, such as free breakfast program.
The Black Panther Party is considered to be the continuations of Malcom X's theoretical concepts of providing a solution for the community by becoming self sufficient.
In 1965, Stokely Carmichael enters the public spectrum when he with Dr. King, led 50,000 people in a march through Montgomery, AL. The purpose of this march was to gather the disenfranchised black population (most without access to the media) to submit their black vote for the first black political party of the region.
After that event, Stokely continued to be an active activist. He was apart of most of the Freedom Rides across the country. He became the chairman of the SNCC and led movements on all fronts across the country. He is also one of the leaders for starting the phrase 'Black Power' and 'Black Americans' (prior to these new phrases the black populace still referred to themselves as negro, or various other terms depending on the region of the world. Getting the majority to refer to themselves collectively as black, was a great accomplishment)
Dr. John Henrik Clarke
Dr. John Henrik Clarke becomes the founding chairman of the Department of Black and Puerto Rican Studies (Hunter College, City University, NY)
Dr. John Henrik Clarke was a Pan-Africanist historian, professor, author and innovative developer of the foundation of Africana studies and institutions.
April 26, 1969
Civil rights leaders James Forman issues the "Black Manifesto", demanding that US churches and synagogues pay $500 million for slave reparations. About $500,000 was collected and used primarily to fund Black Star Publications, a black publishing house.
Angela Davis on Trial
Angela Davis, a Civil Rights Activist, was a supporter of three prison inmates of Soledad Prison (John W Cluchette, Fleeta Drumgo and George Lester Jackson). During the Jackson's trial (August 1970), Angela was falsely accused on several charges associated with the Soledad Brothers, including murder.
The evidence used to accuse her of murder, was the guns used (which were registered to her) and her personal relationship with Jackson. Angela Davis spent about 18 months in jail before she was acquitted in June 1972.
Angela Davis' written works and speeches has been an inspiration for generations.
May 2, 1973
On May 2nd, Assata Shakur was pulled over by the New Jersey State Police, shot twice and then charged with murder of a police officer. Assata spent six and a half years in prison under brutal circumstances before escaping out of the maximum security wing of the Clinton Correctional Facility for Women in New Jersey in 1979.
In 1984, she flees to Cuba and gains political asylum.
For a few decades, Assata's story has inspired millions of supporters who demand the government pardon her. Her written works, videos and other materials have helped many get a full grasp of the story.
Fitting the Pieces Together
In both the 19th and early stages of the 20th century (1800s & 1900s) there were many government moves to "categorize" the Native American population. During the 70s, discoveries were made in which they uncovered the Olmec Skeletons. The Olmec were reported to be Negroid, which become the inspiration of Dr. Ivan Van Sertima's book which analyzes the possibility that many of the black population in the Americas and the Caribbean are descendants of the Olmecs and true Native Americans.
August 1956 -1971
COINTELPRO is (was) a government system designed to neutralize any civilian party, organization of figure that would cause disruption within the US system. This program was created by J. Egar Hoover. The operations of this program officially started in August 1956. It's main objective was to "increase factionalism, cause disruption and win defections." Methods used to achieve the organization's purpose was to generate deceit, distrust, disfranchise, mentally torture and the use of other terror tactics, to maintain order.
Many of tactics used were mental torture methods to encourage individual leaders to want to commit suicide. Political cruelty.
Groups that were disrupted and/or sabotaged by this program included (and not limited to) Socialist Workers Party (1961), KKK (1964), Nation of Islam, Panther Party (1967), the entire New Left social/political movement and so on. The program was exposed in 1971.
Citizen's Commission to Investigate the FBI, under the ruling that the government organization was conducting activity which violated constitutional rights. The programs office was investigated in Media, Pennsylvania. And from there the program was dismantled.
MOVE 9 & Jesse Jackson
The 1980s decade began with a day of a race riots, that erupted in Liberty, Florida. This riot was sparked from police brutality and murder of an unarmed black man.
1982 - Rev Benjamin Chavis (and his congregation) start a campaign to end Environmental Racism (a practice in which black communities are exposed to toxins that have been set in placed because the communities are black – chemical warfare). Re. Benjamin and his congregation manage to block a toxic waste dumping in a black community region in North Carolina.
1984 & 1988 - Rev. Jesse Jackson runs for US President.
1985 - The Philadelphia police drop a bomb (C-4 plastic explosive) on a black neighborhood in an attempt to “neutralize” the MOVE activist group. The mayor of Philadelphia (W. Wilson Goode) who just happened to be the first Black American to be awarded a role of mayor of Philadelphia, was Falsely accused of ordering the Philadelphia police to drop a bomb on the MOVE activist group, with no evidence of the order.
Ending an old Millennia with a fresh start
1990 - Nelson Mandela is released from prison
1991 - Dr. Frances Cress Welsing publishes her book 'The Isis Papers: The Keys to the Colors"
1991 - 427 Skeletal Remains are discovered of African Slaves. The discovery was made on American soil when US General Services were searching for an 18th Century Construction site. In honor of the remains, a memorial was sunk where the skeletons were found.
1995 - Nation of Islam (NOI) led by the Honorable Louis Farrakhan, organizes the Million Man March (Washington, D.C.)
1996 - African Unification Front is formed with the help of Stokely Carmichael (Kwame Ture).
1997 - Assata Shakur publishes a documentary of her own story called "Eyes of the Rainbow"
1997 - Mwalimu Julius Nyerere makes a speech in Accra on the 40th anniversary of Ghana's independence
1998 - Khalid Abdul Muhammad is appointed as the National Chairman of the New Black Panther Party. He organizes a Million Youth March Black Power rally.
July 3, 1999 - A Monument Honoring the Lives Lost in the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade, was placed on the floor of the Atlantic Ocean. The Monument was sponsored by Homeward Bound Foundation; this was called the Middle Passage Monument Project.